Images

Images for 2011–2012 project grant reports
Fig. 1: Exterior of the Enkleistra and plan of the cave complex (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 1: Exterior of the Enkleistra and plan of the cave complex (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 1: Exterior of the Enkleistra (top) and plan of the cave complex showing the Cell, the Bema, the Naos, and the Narthex (bottom; Mango and Hawkins 1966).

Fig. 1: Exterior of the Enkleistra and plan of the cave complex (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 4: Scene of the Crucifixion on the south wall of the Cell (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 4: Scene of the Crucifixion on the south wall of the Cell (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 4: Scene of the Crucifixion on the south wall of the Cell, painted over a thin layer of lead white applied as an intermediate layer to mask a preexisting painting.

Fig. 4: Scene of the Crucifixion on the south wall of the Cell (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 5: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference celadonite mineral sample from Cyprus and an unknown green paint sample from the Enkleistra (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 5: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference celadonite mineral sample from Cyprus and an unknown green paint sample from the Enkleistra (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 5: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference celadonite mineral sample from Cyprus and an unknown green paint sample from the Enkleistra. UV/Vis/NIR provided the exact identification of celadonite with the speciation of the iron (Fe) compounds showing a broad absorption between 540 and 750 nm indicative of the d-d ligand-field and intervalence charge-transfer (IVCT) transitions in the visible region of the chromophors Fe^+2 and Fe^+3 and by the overtones and combination bands of the structural OH (octahedral site, bound to a cation) stretching and bending vibrations and H2O stretching and bending vibrations in the near infrared region.

Fig. 5: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference celadonite mineral sample from Cyprus and an unknown green paint sample from the Enkleistra (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 6: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference lapis lazuli (lazurite mineral) and unknown blue paint samples from the Enkleistra (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 6: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference lapis lazuli (lazurite mineral) and unknown blue paint samples from the Enkleistra (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 6: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference lapis lazuli (lazurite mineral) and unknown blue paint samples from the Enkleistra. The identification of lapis lazuli in the blue paints was determined by its distinctive electronic spectrum displaying a strong and broad absorption around 600 nm in the visible caused by the S3 paramagnetic radical anion in lapis lazuli.

Fig. 6: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference lapis lazuli (lazurite mineral) and unknown blue paint samples from the Enkleistra (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 7: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference cinnabar sample and unknown red paint samples from the Enkleistra (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 7: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference cinnabar sample and unknown red paint samples from the Enkleistra (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 7: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference cinnabar sample and unknown red paint samples from the Enkleistra. The identification of cinnabar in the red paints was possible due to the characteristic absorption edge (or band edge) of sulfur (S) and by pXRF spectroscopy with the photon emissions at 9.987 keV (L-alpha edge energy) and 11.823 keV (L-beta edge energy) characteristic of mercury.

Fig. 7: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference cinnabar sample and unknown red paint samples from the Enkleistra (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 8: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a green paint samples that were covered by wax applied in a previous restoration (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 8: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a green paint samples that were covered by wax applied in a previous restoration (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 8: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a green paint samples that were covered by wax applied in a previous restoration. The wax was identified through the characteristic absorptions of CH2 and CH combination bands and overtones in the near infrared.

Fig. 8: UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a green paint samples that were covered by wax applied in a previous restoration (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 9: XRF spectrum of the green paint in the scene depicting Virgin Mary (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 9: XRF spectrum of the green paint in the scene depicting Virgin Mary (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 9: XRF spectrum of the green paint in the scene depicting Virgin Mary, orans (Bema, east wall), showing the prominent presence of arsenic (As). The iron (Fe) is from celadonite and calcium (Ca) from the plaster (calcium carbonate).

Fig. 9: XRF spectrum of the green paint in the scene depicting Virgin Mary (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 10: XRF spectra of the green paint in a scene in the Bema (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 10: XRF spectra of the green paint in a scene in the Bema (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 10: XRF spectra of the green paint in a scene in the Bema that does not contain arsenic (As). The spectrum shows the characteristic x-rays for Fe in the celadonite and Ca in the plaster.

Fig. 10: XRF spectra of the green paint in a scene in the Bema (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 11: XRF spectra of the green paint in a scene in the Bema (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 11: XRF spectra of the green paint in a scene in the Bema (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 11: XRF spectra of the green paint in a scene in the Bema that does not contain arsenic (As). The spectrum shows the characteristic x-rays for Fe in the celadonite and Ca in the plaster.

Fig. 11: XRF spectra of the green paint in a scene in the Bema (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 12: Cross section samples of the arsenic-rich green paint (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 12: Cross section samples of the arsenic-rich green paint (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 12: Cross section samples of the arsenic-rich green paint (from the Deesis scene, Cell, north wall) in reflected polarized light (top) and in backscattered electrons using VPSEM (bottom).

Fig. 12: Cross section samples of the arsenic-rich green paint (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 13: Image of the scene “washing of the feet” (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 13: Image of the scene “washing of the feet” (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 13: Image of the scene “washing of the feet” (Naos, west wall), showing an extensive area of red alteration on the robe of the apostle to the left.

Fig. 13: Image of the scene “washing of the feet” (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 14: Alteration of cinnabar (HgS) (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 14: Alteration of cinnabar (HgS) (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012)

Fig. 14: Alteration of cinnabar (HgS). Micrographs of sample 16 (from left clockwise): a stereomicroscopic image of sample 16 showing a layer of altered red; the same sample.

Fig. 14: Alteration of cinnabar (HgS) (Koukoulli and Fischer 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 3: Low-resolution screenshot from the ArcGIS database for the Byzantine phases of Kilise Tepe (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 3: Low-resolution screenshot from the ArcGIS database for the Byzantine phases of Kilise Tepe (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 3: Low-resolution screenshot from the ArcGIS database for the Byzantine phases of Kilise Tepe showing the central part of the mound with the main Byzantine buildings excavated up until end of 2009 (grid 10m x 10m) (M. Jackson).

Fig. 3: Low-resolution screenshot from the ArcGIS database for the Byzantine phases of Kilise Tepe (Jackson 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 5: Low-resolution screenshot from the ArcGIS database for the Byzantine phases of Kilise Tepe (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 5: Low-resolution screenshot from the ArcGIS database for the Byzantine phases of Kilise Tepe (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 5: Low-resolution screenshot from the ArcGIS database for the Byzantine phases of Kilise Tepe showing the central part of the mound with the main Byzantine buildings excavated before 2011 together with the 2011 resistivity survey results (each grid square 10m x 10m) (M. Jackson and A. Turner).

Fig. 5: Low-resolution screenshot from the ArcGIS database for the Byzantine phases of Kilise Tepe (Jackson 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 6: Position of 2011 excavation trenches identified by red boxes (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 6: Position of 2011 excavation trenches identified by red boxes (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 6: Position of 2011 excavation trenches identified by red boxes. Note the stele building and the northwest building belong to pre-Byzantine phases (C. Colantoni).

Fig. 6: Position of 2011 excavation trenches identified by red boxes (Jackson 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 7: Working plan of west end of building complex (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 7: Working plan of west end of building complex (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 7: Working plan of west end of building complex in N12, O12, N11 and O11 excavated in July 2011 following identification during geophysical survey in March 2011 (T. Sutcliffe and C. Colantoni).

Fig. 7: Working plan of west end of building complex (Jackson 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 9: Secondary rooms in O11 and O12 (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 9: Secondary rooms in O11 and O12 (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 9: Secondary rooms in O11 and O12 built against the east side of the structure to the west (view to west) (Bob Miller).

Fig. 9: Secondary rooms in O11 and O12 (Jackson 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 14: Stone mortars O12/57 and O12/58 (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 14: Stone mortars O12/57 and O12/58 (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 14: Stone mortars O12/57 and O12/58, excavated immediately south of W6600 in O12c (Bob Miller).

Fig. 14: Stone mortars O12/57 and O12/58 (Jackson 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 16: Partially-reconstructed early Byzantine jar N11/77 (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 16: Partially-reconstructed early Byzantine jar N11/77 (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 16: Partially-reconstructed early Byzantine jar N11/77 with painted decoration, from southwest room of complex in N11 (Bob Miller).

Fig. 16: Partially-reconstructed early Byzantine jar N11/77 (Jackson 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 18: I17a (view to north) (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 18: I17a (view to north) (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 18: I17a (view to north). Large wall W6700 (running east-west) in foreground and the robber trench (running north) showing its return north. Pit P11/045, to the right of picture, cuts the surface that lay at the base of the wall replaced by robber trench (Bob Miller).

Fig. 18: I17a (view to north) (Jackson 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 19: Ash layers on surface against the north and west sides of robber trenches of former walls (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 19: Ash layers on surface against the north and west sides of robber trenches of former walls (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 19: Ash layers on surface against the north and west sides of robber trenches of former walls (view to east, where ash layers run up to robbed east return of robbed wall) (Bob Miller).

Fig. 19: Ash layers on surface against the north and west sides of robber trenches of former walls (Jackson 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 20: Pit P11/045 (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 20: Pit P11/045 (Jackson 2011–2012)

Fig. 20: Pit P11/045. Detail of section through the pit showing burnt wheat (Bob Miller).

Fig. 20: Pit P11/045 (Jackson 2011–2012) - Read More…

Fig. 5: Excavation Unit in relation to the Artists Village (Ogundiran 2011–2012)

Fig. 5: Excavation Unit in relation to the Artists Village (Ogundiran 2011–2012)

Fig. 5: Excavation Unit in relation to the Artists Village (also showing the location of ash pit and glass cullet finds).

Fig. 5: Excavation Unit in relation to the Artists Village (Ogundiran 2011–2012) - Read More…