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Choirosphaktes patrikios and judge of the Opsikion (eleventh century)

Accession number BZS.1958.106.2998
Diameter 31 mm
Field diameter 25 mm
Previous Editions

DO Seals 3, no. 39.8. See also Wassiliou-Seibt, Siegel mit metrischen Legenden II, no. 1778.


Inscription of five lines. Border of dots.


Π(ατ)ρικίου σφράγισμα τοῦ Χοιροσφάκτου


Inscription of five lines preceded and followed by an ornament. Border of dots.

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διευθετοῦντος τὰς κρίσεις Ὀψικίου


Πατρικίου σφράγισμα τοῦ Χοιροσφάκτου διευθετοῦντος τὰς κρίσεις Ὀψικίου.

Seal of the patrikios Choirosphaktes who supervises the legal decisions in the Opsikion theme.


Two twelve-syllable verses. We are ignorant of the owner's first name, but we suspect that he may have been Constantine.

Opsikion was one of the earliest themes of Byzantium; its name from the term obsequium (retinue), often called "imperial obsequium guarded by God." Its territory included many provinces and initially encompassed all northwestern Asia Minor; by the mid-eighth century it was subdivided, and the new themes of the Boukellarioi and of the Optimatoi appeared. All three names show that the origins of this theme are to be sought in the regiments of the imperial guard, and according to some scholars, to the milites praesentales of the fifth century.

The commander of Opsikion traditionally bore the titles of komes, probably because initially he was identical to the comes domesticorum. He is first attested in 626 (perhaps already in 615), and, because of his proximity to Constantinople (his residence was in Nicaea), he played an important role in imperial politics. As this happened regularly with all units of the imperial guard, the tagmata (Listes, 329), the second in command of the Opsikion was called for quite some time a topoteretes (cf. Zacos-Veglery, no. 1762). The province was organized as all other themes (with tourmarchai, anagrapheis, judges, protonotarioi, chartoularioi, strateutai [Laurent, Orghidan, no. 218], etc.), and, already in the ninth century, the commander was also called a strategos (see Listes, 264, footnote 23; Zacos, Seals II, no. 850; Seyrig, no. 191).

The littoral of the Opsikion was also part of the theme of Aigaion Pelagos.

See Pertusi, in De Them., 127-30; Winkelmann, Ämsterstruktur, 72-76, 119-20; ODB III, 1528-29; Haldon, Praetorians, passim, esp. 164 ff; T. Lounghis, "A Deo conservandum imperiale Obsequium," ByzSl 52 (1991) 54-60.