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Basil II (976–1025)

Accession number BZS.1955.1.4306 (DO 55.1.4306)
Diameter 30 mm
Condition Bent.
Previous Editions

DO Seals 6, no. 68.7.


Half-length representation of Christ, bearded, wearing a tunic and himation, and holding a book in his left hand. He has a nimbus cruciger. At left and right, sigla IC-XC: [Ἰ(ησοῦ)]ς Χ(ριστό)ς. Border of dots.


Half-length representation of Basil II wearing a loros. He holds in his right hand a globus surmounted by a simple cross and an akakia in his left. Traces of a circular inscription. Border of dots.


Basil(ios) [au]t(o)c[rat(o)r].


Basilios autocrator.

Basil, autokrator.


Basil II reigned from 976 to 1025. His colleague, Constantine VIII, is regularly portrayed with him on gold coins. This series of seals (published as DO Seals 6 no. 68.1-10), however, is fairly rare in not following the coinage, as it differs in both design, the portrayal of Basil II alone, without his brother, and inscription, identifying the emperor as "autokrator" instead of "basileus."

It is not obvious why Constantine’s portrait is absent from this group of imperial seals. Possibly, in the years after 989, when Bardas Phokas had died and Basil II assumed control of the empire’s affairs, he elected to show through his seals that his brother had been shunted aside and that he was in effect sole ruler. Seibt (Bleisiegel, 87) has postulated that the seal type depicting Basil alone appeared in the 990s, but may have remained in use throughout the reign of Basil and Constantine.

In some cases Basil’s globus cruciger is surmounted by a patriarchal cross and in others by a simple cross. Another difference arises with regard to the decoration of the arms of Christ’s cross nimbus. Sometimes it consists of a row of two dots and in other instances it is more elaborate.

There is no visible inscription on the obverse identifying Christ as "Emmanuel," as on others of this class (published as DO Seals 6 no. 68.1-10; for example, BZS.1955.1.4302).

Finally, one should note that six seals of Basil II have been found during excavations in Preslav. See Jordanov, Preslav, nos. 2–7, a testament to his activities in the the Balkans during the second half of his reign.